Type IV: Not reported in the dog. in other individuals a dose reduction was necessary,51, Sedation. A seizure is defined as uncontrolled electrical activity in the brain. 48% of dogs showed a 50% or greater reduction in seizure frequency. Most epileptic dogs will never attain a seizure-free status. Instead, success should be considered as a reduction in the frequency and duration.
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Primary epilepsy most likely has a complex genetic and environmental cause. This means that unlike recessively inherited genetic diseases, breeding to prevent epilepsy is very difficult and primary epilepsy can be diagnosed in any individual animal of any breed despite multiple normal generations and litters.
It is possible for most epileptic animals to have an excellent quality of life. However, epilepsy is a chronic and occasionally progressive disease that will need to be managed. Rarely, an animal may have a single seizure and not seizure again. An animal that has more than one seizure is expected to have more frequent or severe seizures in the future.
There is evidence to suggest that early treatment in the course of the epilepsy can provide a better long-term outcome. Despite treatment, epileptics are still likely to suffer intermittent seizures. Full Remission Killing sufficient cancer cells that none can be detected in the body by conventional means, for example clinical examination, blood tests, or imaging techniques. The severity of seizures should also reduce.
The same may be true for cats. We normally recommend epilepsy is treated when more than two seizures occur in a six month period. There are many different anti-epileptic drugs AEDs available for the treatment of epilepsy. Your neurology clinician or primary care vet will determine which AED is suitable based on the type and number of seizures your pet has had, but also on licensing, formulation, and cost considerations.
Two drugs are licensed for the treatment of primary epilepsy in dogs; Phenobarbital commonly prescribed under the trade name EpiphenTM and Imepitoin prescribed under the trade name PexionTM. No medication is licensed for cats but we have lots of experience of treating cats with phenobarbital.
These medications are only used in special circumstances are not recommended in the first-line treatment of epilepsy in animals. The main reason for this is that dogs metabolise these medications very quickly and they are less effective in dogs than they are in people.
With most AEDs side effects of treatment can be expected to occur. These side effects are typically worse in the first few weeks of treatment and their severity may decrease with time. Common dose-dependent side effects include increased thirst and hunger consequently urination and weight gain , lethargy, panting, hyper-excitability and possibly wobbliness.
Your neurology clinician or primary care vet will discuss with you what side effects may be expected with medication. It is very important to keep a seizure diary for your pet. The diary should include the date, the number of, the duration and appearance and severity of the seizure s , whether there was any obvious precipitating cause, whether abnormal behaviour was seen in the period after a seizure post-ictal period.
Sharing these diaries with your neurology clinician or primary care vet will assist them in assessing whether treatment is reaching its goals. In addition, it will help to de-emotionalise the seizure experience if you and your family understand what should be done when they occur.
It is understandable that you will want to comfort your pet but only hold them if they have stopped actively seizing and if they are seeking attention. If your neurology clinician or primary care vet has prescribed rectal diazepam this can be administered as instructed if it is safe to do so. The Prognosis The outcome of a surgery, or a treatment. Research from the RVC canine epilepsy clinic leads to the development of the first and only diet to help nutritionally manage dogs with idiopathic epilepsy as an adjunct to veterinary therapy.
Epilepsy is a common chronic neurological condition diagnosed in dogs and humans 2. The most common treatment for canine epilepsy is anti-epileptic drugs AEDs.
The RVC epilepsy clinic is continuously working on new management options to improve seizure control further, quality of life of dogs with epilepsy and to give back control to owners. Drug treatments can be successful in reducing seizures, but it is important to note that consistent remission can be difficult to attain and we need to find new strategies to broaden our management toolkit".
One of the most exciting new areas of research in canine epilepsy is on the effects of diet. These anecdotal observations kindled the idea of looking closer at the effect of diet on dogs with epilepsy. Holger emphasised the importance of giving a consistent diet, which can be extremely difficult in a real world situation, because one of the effects of epilepsy drugs is to stimulate appetite and so these dogs will always be looking for food.
Giving leftovers from human meals can further add to the challenge of looking after a pet with epilepsy because ingredients, such as high salt levels in many human foods, can interfere with how dogs process some of the AEDs.
It is not just the amount of food that matters, the individual nutrients are also important. The team at the RVC demonstrated this in a study that showed a diet rich in medium-chain triglycerides MCT can help control seizures 1.
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My name is Barry and my dog has been suffering from seizures ever since she was diagnosed with glomerular disease which is a form of kidney disease. But there's a new super easy way to help manage your dog's epilepsy and . Not only were the frequency of the seizures reduced by 50%, so was the severity. Of 21 dogs in the trial, three became seizure-free, and another seven experienced at least a 50% drop in seizure frequency while on the diet.