Our treatment has helped thousands of cancer patients with their condition! Our cannabis oil treatment helps to reduce the pain experienced by the members. Read about cannabis and cancer, and how to find reliable have been studied to see if they could have any role in the treatment of cancer. Rather, CBD oil is a kind of medical cannabis can be used as an effective treatment for a variety of painful symptoms and chronic disorders.
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According to the contribution of the endocannabinoid system in a regulation of such variety of processes, its pharmacological modulation becomes promising therapeutic strategy. To date, cannabinoids have been exploited in the palliative medicine. Nabilone THC synthetic analogue is allowed for the treatment of nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy, and sleep disorders. Dronabinol synthetic THC is approved also for nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy and for the treatment of weight loss associated with AIDS.
Medical Cannabis in the form of marijuana dried flowers and leafs is illegal in the USA at the federal level according to the Controlled Substances Act as a Schedule I substance, but some states have legalized it for medical purposes Besides palliative properties of cannabinoids, it has been shown in wide range of in vitro and animal models, that they also exhibit anticancer effects 7 , 15 , 16 , Despite numerous studies conducted during the last decade, there are still inconsistent data regarding the exact role of cannabinoid system in cancer development.
The upregulated expression of CB receptors and the elevated levels of endocannabinoids have been observed in a variety of cancer cells skin, prostate, and colon cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, endometrial sarcoma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and pituitary adenoma, Hodgkin lymphoma, chemically induced hepatocarcinoma, mantel cell lymphoma , but it is not always correlated with the expression level of these receptors in tissue of origin 7 , 11 , 18 , Furthermore, concentration of endocannabinoids, expression level of their receptors, and the enzymes involved in their metabolism frequently are associated with an aggressiveness of cancer.
This implies that an overactivation of endocannabinoid system might be protumorigenic and plays an essential role in the development of cancer 20 , On the other hand, there are reports indicating that an activation of the cannabinoid receptors can impair cancer development and hence endocannabinoid signaling can be antitumorigenic.
Furthermore, it has been shown that silenced expression of CB1 receptor leads to an acceleration of intestinal adenoma growth, whereas activation of this receptor attenuates its growth in murine model The elevated level of endocannabinoids has been shown to reduce the development of precancerous lesions in mouse colon On the other hand, there are reports that have indicated that under certain circumstances, cannabinoids can be protumorigenic 31 , 32 , It has been shown that CB1 and CB2 receptor agonists stimulate apoptotic cell death in glioma cells by induction of de novo synthesis of ceramide, sphingolipid with proapoptotic activity 34 , If this response fails, ER stress can lead to activation of intrinsic apoptosis pathway The known mechanisms responsible for the induction of apoptosis by cannabinoids.
It has been demonstrated that process of autophagy is upstream of apoptosis in mechanism of cell death induced by cannabinoids. An inhibition of autophagy prevents apoptosis induced by cannabinoids, while an inhibition of apoptosis prevents only cell death but not the autophagy 39 , 41 , 42 , It has been shown that cannabinoids induce process of autophagy in cancer cell lines such as glioma, melanoma, hepatic, and pancreatic cancer 39 , 41 , 42 , Moreover, some additional mechanisms have been demonstrated to contribute to the process of an induction of cell death by cannabinoids in certain cell lines.
Similar results have been obtained in prostate carcinoma cells Table S1 Cannabinoids devoid of psychoactive properties also exhibit anticancer potential. They do not affect CB receptors directly and their exact mechanism of action is still not fully elucidated. Another interesting explanation is that CBD can prevent the degradation of anandamide AEA and subsequently leads to increased endocannabinoid concentration by acting as an inhibitor of fatty acid amide hydrolase FAAH 52 , This notion raises the possibility that the observed actions of CBD can be, in fact, partially the result of an elevated level of AEA.
These observations are in line with the described earlier relations between endocannabinoids and cancer development. Most of the research implicates that the action of CBD and other cannabinoids devoid of psychoactive properties is not linked to a direct activation of the CB receptors. However, there are reports suggesting that CBD can induce apoptosis in cancer cells partially via direct or indirect activation of CB2 receptor Recent studies have shown that CBD reduces cancer cell viability in many cancer types such as neuroblastoma, glioblastoma, melanoma, leukemia, colorectal, breast, lung, or prostate cancer Table S1 41 , 50 , 51 , 54 , 56 , 57 , 58 , The mechanism of the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids is still not fully elucidated.
Research has been focused mainly on the CB2 receptor, mostly due to its expression primarily in cells of the immune system. CB1 receptors have been noticed in the T lymphocytes and it is proposed that their activation may be connected with the cytokine biasing induced by cannabinoids The highest level of CB2 expression has been observed in B cells, followed by NK cells, monocytes, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, and T cells It has been shown that the expression level of CB2 correlates with the cell activation state and with the presence of immune modulators The immune system is postulated to be involved in the control of growth and development of many types of cancer.
One of the key regulators of the antitumor immune response is cytokines profile. It is postulated that a Th1 response is crucial for an effective immune response against many tumors Phytocannabinoids with high affinity for CB2 receptors, such as THC, exhibit modulatory effects on both cellular and humoral immunity.
Nonpsychotropic cannabinoids with low affinity for CB receptors have also been proven to exhibit immunomodulatory action.
Most of the studies indicate that cannabinoids exhibit immunosuppressive action The most extensively examined immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids in context of cancer are regarding the changes in the activity of T cells. It has also been proposed that cannabinoids can affect T cells by the induction of apoptosis 73 , Another possibility is that cannabinoids effects on immune cells are at least partially induced indirectly via other suppressive mechanisms such as release of cortisone The effects on the Th17 cells subsets have not been fully described to date.
Interestingly, CB receptors seem to take part in the modulation of those phenomena Indeed, there are reports indicating the suppression of anticancer immune response by THC. It has been demonstrated that THC suppresses host immune reactivity against cancer in murine lung cancer model Lewis lung carcinoma, 3LL and line 1 alveolar cell carcinoma L1C2 , leading to the increase in the tumor growth CB2 receptors antagonists also blocked the effects of THC administration.
Similar results were obtained in the study of mouse mammary carcinoma. It has been demonstrated that THC exposure leads to the significant increase in the 4T1 carcinoma growth and metastasis due to the inhibition of the specific antitumor immune response Observed effects were mediated by CB2 receptors It is possible that tumors originating from tissues of low CB receptors expression would be significantly less sensitive to cannabinoids anticancer action and, eventually, due to THC immunosuppressive properties, such tumors may find a favorable environment for growth and development.
It is also possible that anticancer properties of cannabinoids may be compensated by their immunosuppressive action, finally leading to promotion of the tumor growth. Chronic inflammation has been associated with the development of neoplasia; therefore, reducing inflammation may, to some extent, contribute to the prevention of carcinogenesis. Viability of noncancerous cells seems to remain unchanged or sometimes even elevated by cannabinoids 34 , 35 , 36 , 39 , On the other hand, cannabinoids can trigger apoptotic cell death in some types of nontransformed cells, especially those of high proliferative properties such as endothelial cells The cellular response to cannabinoids relies on different mechanisms in cancerous and noncancerous cells.
It has been demonstrated in vitro that cannabinoids can exhibit a stimulatory activity in nanomolar concentration and an inhibitory activity in micromolar concentration biphasic response , which significantly exceeds concentrations usually detected in blood of marijuana smokers Concentration of THC used in described experiment corresponded to its serum concentration obtained by smoking or oral administration of THC Besides the above described proapoptotic effect in cancer cells, cannabinoids exhibit some other important and potentially valuable properties.
It has been demonstrated that they can inhibit angiogenesis by blocking an activation of the vascular endothelial growth factor VEGF pathway.
Cannabinoids have also been shown to reduce spontaneous and induced metastases in animal models and to inhibit an invasiveness of cancer cells in vitro breast, lung, cervical cancer, and glioma 86 , 87 , 88 , 89 , These effects are partially connected with a modulation of the activity of extracellular proteases and their inhibitors 86 , The pharmacological inhibition of ceramide biosynthesis and the expression of p8 protein lead to the prevention of the mentioned effects The studies conducted to date indicate that antiangiogenic and antimetastatic characteristics of CB receptor agonists, similar to their antiproliferative effects, rely on the stimulation of ceramide biosynthesis and a modulation of pathways involving p8 protein.
Cannabinoids that are not agonists of CB receptors CBD , have also been shown to exhibit such properties. Increased levels of FAAH substrates e.
Data collected to date regarding anticancer effects of cannabinoids are almost completely limited to preclinical studies conducted on cell lines and animal models.
The first experiment that was conducted on human subjects was a pilot clinical study on nine terminal patients with recurrent glioblastoma who were resistant to the standard therapy Patients received THC intratumorally.
This way of administration was safe and patients did not exhibit any overt psychoactive effects. In some patients the tumor growth rate decreased. Changes observed upon THC administration in two patients can be connected with anticancer effect of THC according to previous preclinical studies decreased cell proliferation, occurrence of apoptosis Despite these interesting observations, it is not possible to draw significant conclusions from the study on a group of nine.
This shows a need for further clinical trials, which could help to assess the dosage and the potential interaction of cannabinoids with other substances. These studies are currently ongoing or have ended recently, but the results have not been published to date. Cannabis plants produce a substantial amount of cannabinoids and other secondary metabolites. It has been demonstrated that extracts of Cannabis exhibit stronger effects on the subjects with spasticity than pure THC Some cannabinoids have been demonstrated to attenuate psychoactive effects of THC or smoked marijuana 13 , Pure cannabinoids are more convenient for study and to a subsequent standardization as a medical preparation, but still Cannabis extracts with specified amounts of cannabinoids seem to be valuable aim for further studies, also as potential anticancer agents.
An interesting idea is a combination of cannabinoids with conventional anticancer drugs, which can exhibit synergistic potential. The promising results from studies on animal models of glioblastoma treated with THC and temozolomide have led to, mentioned above, clinical trial of this chemotherapeutic agent and Sativex 94 , Similar observations from the study on pancreatic adenocarcinoma showed that gemcitabine administered with cannabinoids synergistically inhibited cancer cell growth To date, Cannabis or its preparations have found an application in a palliative medicine due to its analgesic and antiemetic effects, an attenuation of the side effects of chemotherapy or a capacity to treat spasticity in multiple sclerosis.
We are still initial stages of incorporating Cannabis products in the clinical care. There is still a lack of profound safety and efficacy clinical trials and it is very difficult or even impossible to assess the potential benefits and risk of using cannabinoids in many cases. Many aspects wait for an elucidation: The most common way of using recreational marijuana is smoking, which is unsuitable way of an administration from a medical point of view.
Another important issue is the lack of easy accessible biomarkers showing the responsiveness of patients to a cannabinoid treatment. The diversity of affecting multiple signaling pathways might pave way for developing cannabinoids that selectively obstruct a particular pathway, thus opening avenues for specific targeted treatments. Moreover, cannabinoids are more specific to cancer cells than normal cells. The administration of single cannabinoids might produce limited relief compared to the administration of crude extract of plant containing multiple cannabinoids, terpenes and flavanoids.
Thus, combination of cannabinoids with other chemotherapeutic drugs might provide a potent clinical outcome, reduce toxicity, increase specificity and overcome drug resistance complications. Additional findings in in vitro and in vivo models are needed to support studies at preclinical setting. The authors disclose no competing interests. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Journal List Oncotarget v. Published online Jul Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.
Received May 19; Accepted Jul This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The pharmacological importance of cannabinoids has been in study for several years. Cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid agonists, cancer, signaling. Cannabinoid and its receptor Cannabinoids can be classified into three groups based on their source of production; endogenous cannabinoids endocannabinoids , phytocannabinoids and synthetic cannabinoids Fig.
Table I Cannabinoid's structure and its role in different physiological processes. Docosatetraenyl ethanolamide CB1 agonist neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory [ ]. Oleamide CB1 agonist neuromodulatory and immunomodulatory [ ]. Open in a separate window. Cannabinoids and their classification This figure illustrates how cannabinoids are divided into three main categories according to their availability in nature.
Endogenous cannabinoids Endogenous cannabinoids which are produced in our body include lipid molecules containing long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, amides, esters and ethers that bind to CB1 or CB2 receptors. Phytocannabinoids Phytocannabinoids are only known to occur naturally in significant quantity in the cannabis plant, and are concentrated in a viscous resin that is produced in glandular structures known as trichomes.
Synthetic cannabinoids Synthetic cannabinoids have been extensively used as a pharmacological agent, both in vitro and in vivo , to obtain more detailed insight of cannabinoid action, in order to evaluate their potential clinical use. Cannabinoid mediated signaling in cancer cells Cannabinoids activate CB1 or CB2 receptor which in turn modulates diverse signaling targets. Table II Role of cannabinoid in different cancers and its associated signaling.
Cannabinoids Anti-cancer effect and its mechanism of action Anandamide 1 Breast cancer: Suppression of nerve growth factor Trk receptors and prolactin receptors Prostate cancer: Attenuates mechanical hyperalgesia HU 1 Prostate cancer: MMPs pathway 3 Skin cancer: Mitogenic at low doses 4 Glioma: Role of cannabinoids in regulation of cancer growth One of the important aspects of an effective anti-tumor drug is its ability to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells.
Cannabinoids and breast cancer Breast cancer is one of the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women, and its incidence in the developing world is on the rise [ 40 - 41 ].
Cannabinoids and prostate cancer Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men of all races and is one of the leading causes of cancer death in this population. Cannabinoids and lung cancer Lung cancer has one of the highest mortality rates among cancer-suffering patients.
Cannabinoids and skin cancer Melanoma is the mainly cause of skin cancer—related deaths worldwide. Cannabinoids and pancreatic cancer Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive and devastating human malignancies. Cannabinoids and bone cancer Chondrosarcoma and osteosarcoma are the most frequent primary bone cancers [ 89 ].
Cannabinoids and glioma Gliomas are the most important group of malignant primary brain tumors and one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, exhibit high resistance to conventional chemotherapies. Cannabinoids and oral cancer Oral cancer is mainly occurs in the mouth including lips, tongue and throat.
Cannabinoids and head and neck cancer Marijuana smoking increases the incidence of head and neck cancer in young people but its constituent, cannabinoids have anti-tumor properties.
Cannabinoids and thyroid carcinoma Thyroid carcinoma is the most aggressive form which occurs in thyroid gland. Role of cannabinoids in pro-metastatic mechanisms like angiogenesis, migration and invasion Migration and invasion are characteristic features of cancer cells. Role of cannabinoids in stemness and cancer Cancer stem cells CSC are part of the tumor cell population.
Role of cannabinoids in immune environment and cancer Cancer is a type of inflammatory disease, where immune cells infiltrate into the tumor site and secrete factors which enhance the prospects of proliferation, angiogenesis and metastasis [ ]. Footnotes The authors disclose no competing interests.
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Using cannabis in prostate cancer patients
Whole or crude marijuana (including marijuana oil or hemp oil) is not approved by Cannabidiol (CBD) can help treat seizures, can reduce anxiety and In studies of cancer patients, though, it wasn't better than placebo or. So obviously, there is a lot of speculation around cannabis oil. not know if it will interfere with how the treatment works making it more unsafe. Cannabis has been used medicinally for millennia, but has not been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to treat any medical.