Biology corner corticosteroids answersTo leave a general comment about our Web site, please click here. He burrows in the field more anavar 20 cycle swine to bake biology corner corticosteroids answers cooking vessels. His clothes being stiff with mud, his head cloth consists only of rags, so that the air which comes forth from his burning furnace enters his nose. He bbiology get rid of his dirt, although he spends the day at the reed pond. During the Industrial Revolution, not answerw did factories and manufacturing rise, but so did respiratory diseases.
To leave a general comment about our Web site, please click here. He burrows in the field more than swine to bake his cooking vessels. His clothes being stiff with mud, his head cloth consists only of rags, so that the air which comes forth from his burning furnace enters his nose. He cannot get rid of his dirt, although he spends the day at the reed pond. During the Industrial Revolution, not only did factories and manufacturing rise, but so did respiratory diseases.
Diseases caused by cotton dust, mining smoke, fumes from metal works, and crop dust became more prevalent. By the early mid, 19 th century, respiratory diseases like pneumoconiosis, chronic bronchitis, byssinosis, and lung cancer were affecting the masses. Elizabeth Gaskell describes the plight of British cotton workers in the novel North and South.
Today, similar problems continue to challenge all nations. According to WHO, 7 million premature deaths in were linked to air pollution. Many nations, including the United States, have strict air quality controls, but developing countries struggle to enforce changes that could improve air quality.
One reason for this is the cost of meeting safe air quality levels. A study by Kanervisto et al. They conclude that the socioeconomically disadvantaged had higher incidences of reporting COPD and asthma. Factors including smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, poor nutrition, lack or little education all contributed to increase reporting of two mentioned respiratory ailments. Because the Silicon Valley is known for its high tech industry, it is not surprising that air pollution is an ongoing problem for the growing valley.
Amid the celebrations, many of its past administrators, teachers, and students reflected on its history. Teachers recalled how, in its beginning, Mt. Pleasant was surrounded by orchards, and the major industry was the old Del Monte cannery in downtown San Jose. Today, the tech industry rules the valley and is a major contributor to poor air quality. The student population of Mt. Pleasant High School reflects that of the city.
MP is a diverse school, where the majority of the population is of Latino or Hispanic descent, followed by Asians, Filipinos, African Americans, and Whites. The majority of our students out of receive free and reduced lunch, are labeled ELs English Leaners. Within the Silicon Valley, there is a disparity of incomes. In their jobs they are exposed to environmental irritants. From gardener, line assembly personnel, house cleaner, to facilities operations, they are subjected to toxic substances and irritants to the respiratory system.
For example, a person who cleans houses for a living might be exposed to fumes from various cleaners, dust mites, mold, and mildew. A heating and cooling tech might be exposed to toxic fumes from the refrigerants, and dust and mildew in unclean, unfiltered air in crawl spaces, attics, and basements.
As Physiology students, my students understand that one goal I have for them is learn to be advocates for their own health. Often, my year old students also become health advocates for their families, since some of their parents have only a middle school or 6 th grade education. An ongoing challenge for me is to instill reasons why anatomy and physiology matter beyond my classroom door. Typically, the respiratory system is taught in the early spring, second semester.
This unit is intended for presentation after students have learned about immunity. Discussing air pollution and its relation to respiratory health will only help my students apply the content to their daily lives.
The challenge of the Next Generation Science Standards is blending content, engineering, and literacy into the science curriculum. Through a series of lectures, discussions, classroom debates, student review of current research, and close reading, students in physiology will apply their knowledge to lead an awareness campaign for their peers and community. Through the use of student generated web-pages or blogs, students will highlight issues stemming from air pollution related respiratory disorders.
Though this unit is intended for a four week period in Anatomy and Physiology in my classroom, the content and activities can be easily adopted for many Biology or Health Science courses. Air pollution affects the air we breathe outside our homes, but also affects our lives indoors. This unit will highlight respiratory illnesses that arise at home and at the workplace.
Though there are many pulmonary diseases including lung cancer, this unit will cover chronic obstructive pulmonary disease through asthma, restrictive pulmonary disease through silicosis and second-sand smoke from electronic cigarette exposure.
It is my intention for students to study a mixture of respiratory ailments that have a long history and those that have recently developed. This broad exposure will introduce them to many concepts in respiratory physiology, and improve their understanding of respiratory health. The EPA has identified six pollutants in the air as being the most critical and therefore requiring the most attention.
They are carbon monoxide, lead, nitrogen oxides, ozone, and particulate matter. Particulate matter varies in size, shape, and source. Primary being the source of the particulate matter and secondary being those that react with sunlight and water to create particles.
For example, road dust is a primary source and exhaust from cars is a secondary source. When studying air quality, particles of 2. There are different types of particular matter, organic and inorganic. Particles like grain, cotton, and animal dander are considered organic because they contain carbon, whereas metals, soil, clay, are inorganic. The city of Los Angeles gets the dubious distinction of having the most polluted air among larger cities that include New York, Chicago, and Houston.
The bread basket of California, once known for its rich agriculture valleys, are turning into the new Dust Bowl. Those left to farm, cultivate, and harvest are exposed to higher levels of particulate matter and dust in the air. Thus, it is understandable that air quality in California will become worse and will lead to further increases in respiratory ailments.
Beyond the United States, situations are even worse. In countries like India, parts of Africa, and China smoke from the burning of trash, industrial and vehicular emissions, and coal-fired emissions have clouded the sky and the sun so thick that lung disease, eye disease, and vitamin D deficiency is common place. The similarities of countries with poor air quality include high numbers of people who are impoverished, smoke, obese, diabetic, uninsured, and live in high population density areas.
There are two types of respiration that occurs in the human body, external respiration and internal respiration. External respiration involved the nasal passages, pharynx, and larynx, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles, and alveolus. This set of tissues provides for the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between air and blood. Cells within tissues all over the body use oxygen to fuel cellular internal respiration, which leads to carbon dioxide accumulation.
The lungs are actually comprised of five lobes two lobes on the left and three lobes on the right. The five lung lobes and their air passages trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles are housed in the thoracic cavity. All the major organs of external respiration lie in this space, including the heart, which is necessary to pump blood which transports the gases from the lungs to the rest of the body. The lungs are surrounded by two membranes, the parietal and visceral pleura. The process of breathing, discussed later, involves a large thin muscle below the lung known as the diaphragm, which separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity.
The upper respiratory tract includes the structures of the nose, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynx. The first structure of contact between outside air and the human body is the nose and its opening — the nostrils. The nose is divided into two chambers by the nasal septum.
As air enters the nose it passes through the nasal conchae, shell like structures that line the nasal cavity. The nasal cavity is more than just a simple passage. This cavity and the nasal conchae increase the surface area for olfactory receptors smell receptors , hair, blood vessels, and mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity.
There, epithelial tissues, cells lining the cavity and its goblet cells coat the nose with mucous to create a sticky surface for debris. Similarly, hair creates a tangled web that can trap dust before entering the upper throat, the pharynx. Blood vessels warm the passing air to body temperature and the olfactory receptors stimulate the brain to create the sensation of smell. The throat or pharynx is divided into three sections: The pharynx leads to the voice box, or larynx.
Here, the two sets of vocal cords are housed in cartilage which shape the way sound is produced. Relaxed vocal cords expose the glottis, the hole through which air passes to the main trunk of the respiratory system, the trachea. When food or liquids enter the throat, the epiglottis covers the glottis to prevent food or liquid from entering the trachea preventing choking. The trachea and lung tissue is analogous to an upside down tree with multiple branches called bronchi.
Soft tissues between the C-rings allow the trachea to expand. Two main bronchi, right and left, branch off the trachea. These primary bronchi lead to a smaller passages known as bronchioles, which lead to even smaller passages until the bronchioles become alveolar ducts.
At the end of each tiny alveolar duct is an air bag, the alveolar sac. Each alveolar sac is analogous to a grape bundle with many microscopic alveoli. Each single cell lined alveolus is wrapped in capillaries, blood vessels that allow oxygen and carbon dioxide to be exchanged. Because of the thin nature of the alveolus and it being the terminal end of bronchial tree, particles from dust, nicotine, and other air pollutants can easily damage the alveoli.
The damage can lead to the equivalent of scar tissue, preventing the fragile alveoli from being able to exchange gases with the surrounding blood vessels. As mentioned previously the lungs are surrounded by a membrane, called the pleura. The pleura is actually two layers, one attached to the thoracic wall, the parietal pleura and the other attached to the lung tissue itself, the visceral pleura. Between the two is the intra-pleural space. The process of breathing includes two major processes: In order to understand the mechanism students need to under two basic rules.
One, gases move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. Therefore, for a fixed number of molecules at a fixed temperature, any pressure increase corresponds to a decrease in volume. To understand how the lungs work students should know the different pressures governing the thoracic cavity.