Axis History ForumThe NVA was first established in and disbanded in ; it did not see any significant combat. It participated in the invasion with the Soviet Armed Forces against the Czechoslovak dbol with anavar cycle government during the Prague Spring ofbut without seeing combat. However, there east german hat insignia frequent reports of East German advisors working with communist African governments east german hat insignia the Cold War. This formation culminated years of preparation during which former Wehrmacht officers and communist veterans of the Spanish Civil War helped organize and train paramilitary units of the People's Police. Though the NVA featured a German appearance — including uniforms and ceremonies patterned after older German military traditions — tren tay x100s doctrine and structure showed the strong influence of the Soviet Armed Forces.
East German Hat | eBay
The NVA was first established in and disbanded in ; it did not see any significant combat. It participated in the invasion with the Soviet Armed Forces against the Czechoslovak interim government during the Prague Spring of , but without seeing combat. However, there were frequent reports of East German advisors working with communist African governments during the Cold War.
This formation culminated years of preparation during which former Wehrmacht officers and communist veterans of the Spanish Civil War helped organize and train paramilitary units of the People's Police. Though the NVA featured a German appearance — including uniforms and ceremonies patterned after older German military traditions — its doctrine and structure showed the strong influence of the Soviet Armed Forces. During its first year, about 27 percent of the NVA's officer corps had formerly served in the Wehrmacht.
Of the 82 highest command positions, ex-Wehrmacht officers held 61; however, very few of them had served in high ranks. The military knowledge and combat experience of these veterans were indispensable in the NVA's early years, although by the s most of these World War II veterans had retired.
The West German Bundeswehr similarly relied on Wehrmacht veterans, who initially comprised the majority of its commissioned ranks. In its first six years the NVA operated as an all-volunteer force. West Germany , in contrast, re-introduced universal military service in The GDR introduced conscription in At its peak in , the three NVA services had about , men under arms altogether. Between and , about 2. Like the ruling communist parties of other Soviet satellites, the East German Socialist Unity Party of Germany SED assured control by appointing loyal party members to top positions and by organizing intensive political education for all ranks.
The proportion of SED members in the officer corps rose steadily after the early s, eventually reaching almost 95 percent. The NVA saw itself as the "instrument of power of the working class" Machtinstrument der Arbeiterklasse.
The NVA's motto, inscribed on its flag, read: The NVA never took part in full-scale combat, although it participated in a support role in the suppression of the Prague Spring of , and NVA officers often served as combat advisers in Africa. In a few days they were withdrawn. The plan was regularly updated until , when a less ambitious plan that simply aimed at containing Berlin was substituted.
In the autumn of the NVA stood ready to intervene in Poland in support of a possible Soviet invasion, but the declaration of martial law in Poland 13 December averted the crisis. The NVA went into a state of heightened combat readiness on several occasions, including the construction of the Berlin Wall in , the Cuban Missile Crisis in , the Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia , and, for the last time, in late as protests swept through the GDR.
The NVA operated as a professional volunteer army until , when conscription was introduced. Political control of the armed forces took place through close integration with the Socialist Unity Party of Germany SED , which vetted all the officers. Military training provided by the school system and the growing militarization of East German society bolstered popular support for the military establishment. During the popular demonstrations of that led to the downfall of the GDR's Communist government, some NVA forces were placed on alert but were never deployed against protestors.
At the same time, the Soviet government ordered its troops in the GDR to remain in barracks. After the forced retirement of SED and state leader Erich Honecker and other conservatives from the ruling Politburo at the height of the crisis in October , the new SED leadership never considered the possibility of using armed force against the " Peaceful Revolution ".
The manpower of the NVA consisted of some 85, soldiers in , climbed to , by , and remained essentially steady through According to a study, NVA leaders from the late s through the s came predominantly from working-class backgrounds, with few from middle-class or professional families and no representatives of the aristocracy present in the upper echelons. Excepting specialized military or political instruction, most NVA leaders reported primary school as their highest level of formal education.
Its facilities and equipment were handed over to the Bundeswehr. Most facilities closed, and equipment was either sold or given to other countries. The Bundeswehr retained only 3, — after a demotion of one rank.
In addition, all female soldiers at this point it was prohibited for women to become soldiers in the Bundeswehr and all soldiers over the age of 55 were discharged. Service in the NVA did not count for points towards federal pensions in the unified Germany.
Retired NVA soldiers and officers received only minimal pensions after unification: After the reform of , service in the NVA became known as "served outside of the Bundeswehr".
Many former NVA officers feel bitter about their treatment after unification. While receiving only minimal pensions, few have been able to find jobs except as laborers or security guards. Former NVA officers are not permitted to append their NVA rank to their name as a professional title; no such prohibition applies to rank attained in the Wehrmacht or in the Waffen-SS during the Nazi era.
This became the Bundeswehr Unit for Camouflage and Deception. The following list includes the NVA generals and admirals who were awarded the German Cross in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War with the date of the awards as well as the rank held at the time listed after the name. The following list includes the NVA generals and admirals who were awarded the Knight's Cross of the Iron Cross in the Wehrmacht during the Second World War with the date of the awards as well as the rank held at the time listed after the name.
The NVA was, in relation to its equipment and training, one of the strongest armies in the Warsaw Pact. It was equipped with a large number of modern weapons systems, most of Soviet origin, from which a small portion were given back to the Soviet Union in The remaining equipment and materials was very substantial.
Large quantities of replacement parts, medical supplies, atomic, biological and chemical warfare equipment, training devices and simulators, etc. One of the first measures taken after reunification was a survey and securing of weapons and devices by former members of the NVA. The MDSG was privatised in Unless the defense material was given free of charge to beneficiaries in the new federal states or other departments, to museums, or to friendly nations in the context of aid supplies in third world nations, it was destroyed.
Before the construction of the Berlin Wall in , military service in the GDR was voluntary, though the Free German Youth and public schools mounted intensive recruitment drives and service in the NVA was often a prerequisite for career advancement.
Compulsory service had been introduced earlier in West Germany — one year after the Federal Armed Forces were established — but the GDR held back from this step until The situation changed when the border was sealed in August , and five months later the government announced a mandatory service term of 18 months for men.
There was, at first, no alternative service for conscientious objectors. This changed in when, under pressure from the national Protestant church , the GDR's National Defense Council authorized the formation of Baueinheiten construction units for men of draft age who "refuse military service with weapons on the grounds of religious viewpoints or for similar reasons".
The construction soldiers wore uniforms and lived in barracks under military discipline, but were not required to bear arms and received no combat training. In theory, they were to be used only for civilian construction projects. The GDR therefore became the only Warsaw Pact country to provide a non-combat alternative for conscientious objectors.
However, fearing that other soldiers would be contaminated by pacifist ideas, the government took care to segregate the construction units from regular conscripts.
Moreover, conscripts who chose the alternative service option often faced discrimination later in life, including denial of opportunities for higher education.
The NVA had four main branches: In wartime, mobilization of the NVA's reserves would have nearly doubled its strength. GDR authorities also had at their disposal the internal security troops of the Ministry of the Interior the Kasernierte Volkspolizei or garrisoned People's Police and the Ministry for State Security the Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment along with the , strong party auxiliary " Combat Groups of the Working Class " Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse , who were available in times of war.
NVA administration was divided into the following commands:. With the restructuring of the Barracked Police CIP in , khaki uniforms similar in shape and color to those of the Soviet Army were introduced.
The desire for a separate "German" and "socialist" military tradition, and the consequent founding of the NVA in , introduced new uniforms which strongly resembled those of the Wehrmacht. They were of a similar cut and made of a brownish-gray, called stone gray, cloth.
The dark high-necked collar were later deleted, except on the coats from — Fry and his collaborator Dr. The helmet had seen trials since , but was not adopted during World War II. With the exceptions of the People's Navy, whose dark-blue uniforms were consistent with the styles of most navies around the world, and the Combat Groups of the Working Class Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse , who wore their own olive-green fatigue uniforms, all NVA armed services, the Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment , the Border Troops of the German Democratic Republic , and the Barracked People's Police Kasernierte Volkspolizei wore the same basic uniform.
Several later modifications were introduced, but the style and cut remain fundamentally the same. There were variety of uniforms worn according to setting work or social and season summer or winter.
Most uniforms service, semi-dress, and parade were stone gray, a brownish-gray color that was conspicuously different from the gray-green of the People's Police. Officers' uniforms differed from those of enlisted personnel by better quality and texture cloth. The field and service uniforms were normal attire for most day-to-day functions. NVA uniforms initially wore the Waffenfarben as worn by the Wehrmacht, but later reverted to white except for generals who wore red.
Felix Dzerzhinsky Guards Regiment uniforms were nearly identical to those of the NVA and were distinguished primarily by the dark red MfS service color of its insignia and by an honorary cuff-band on the left sleeve bearing the regiment's name. Other Stasi officers wore a similar uniform, but without the cuff-band. East German armed forces personnel display rank insignia on shoulder boards or shoulder loops on service, semi-dress, and parade uniforms, and subdued sleeve insignia midway between the shoulder and elbow on the left sleeve of the field uniform, coveralls, or other special uniforms.
General officer rank is denoted by five-pointed silver stars mounted on a gold and silver braided shoulder cord set on a bright red base. All other officers and NCOs wear a four-pointed star. Like many of the other Warsaw Pact countries, NVA rank insignia followed the Soviet pattern in the arrangement of stars. The Volksmarine followed similar shoulder insignia for the naval officers who also used sleeve insignia and enlisted ratings except that these were blue and white or yellow in the case of naval ratings.
The GDR had some seventy decorations for persons or groups it wished to recognize, and it bestowed them liberally.
Some, such as battle decorations, were specifically set aside for armed forces personnel, many awarded to soldiers and civilians alike, and others, although ordinarily civilian awards, can on occasion be earned by those on military duty.
The latter group included decorations for achievement in the arts, literature, production, and work methods. They were awarded to service personnel or specific units that participated in civil production projects or assisted during harvesting. Some, including the Order of Merit and the Star of People's Friendship, were awarded in three classes. A few were accompanied by substantial monetary premiums.
The NVA did not permit military personnel to wear Wehrmacht awards and decorations. The two main periodicals of the NVA were the weekly newspaper Volksarmee and the monthly soldier's magazine Armeerundschau. One of these is devoted to the NVA, which had used part of the complex as a barracks. Many German military museums host former NVA equipment like tanks and aircraft.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This thumb includes a list of references , but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. Please help to improve this thumb by introducing more precise citations.