Aulas 1 2 Hist Msec 2007Em humanos, estas enzimas incluem as citocromo P oxidases, [ 88 ] as UDP-glucuronosiltransferases [ 89 ] e as glutationo- S -transferases. Este efeito de "bio-termostato" parece ser comum na natureza. Trifosfato de adenosina — Adenosine triphosphate is a nucleotide, also called a nucleoside triphosphate, is a small molecule used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often referred to as the unit of currency of intracellular energy transfer. ATP transports conceito de terpenos e esteroides energy within cells que son esteroides en medicina metabolism, most cellular functions need energy in order to concieto carried out, synthesis of proteins, synthesis of membranes, movement of the cell, cellular division, conceiyo of various solutes etc.
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Em humanos, estas enzimas incluem as citocromo P oxidases, [ 88 ] as UDP-glucuronosiltransferases [ 89 ] e as glutationo- S -transferases.
Este efeito de "bio-termostato" parece ser comum na natureza. Trifosfato de adenosina — Adenosine triphosphate is a nucleotide, also called a nucleoside triphosphate, is a small molecule used in cells as a coenzyme. It is often referred to as the unit of currency of intracellular energy transfer. ATP transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism, most cellular functions need energy in order to be carried out, synthesis of proteins, synthesis of membranes, movement of the cell, cellular division, transport of various solutes etc.
The ATP is the molecule that carries energy to the place where the energy is needed, when ATP breaks into ADP and Pi, the breakdown of the last covalent link of phosphate liberates energy that is used in reactions where it is needed. Substrate-level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation in cellular respiration, and photophosphorylation in photosynthesis are three mechanisms of ATP biosynthesis.
Metabolic processes that use ATP as an energy source convert it back into its precursors, ATP is therefore continuously recycled in organisms, the human body, which on average contains only grams of ATP, turns over its own body weight equivalent in ATP each day. ATP is used as a substrate in signal transduction pathways by kinases that phosphorylate proteins and it is also used by adenylate cyclase, which uses ATP to produce the second messenger molecule cyclic AMP.
Apart from its roles in signaling and energy metabolism, ATP is also incorporated into nucleic acids by polymerases in the process of transcription, ATP is the neurotransmitter believed to signal the sense of taste. ATP was discovered in by Karl Lohmann, and independently by Cyrus Fiske and Yellapragada Subbarow of Harvard Medical School and it was proposed to be the intermediary molecule between energy-yielding and energy-requiring reactions in cells by Fritz Albert Lipmann in It was first artificially synthesized by Alexander Todd in , ATP consists of adenosine — composed of an adenine ring and a ribose sugar — and three phosphate groups.
The phosphoryl groups, starting with the group closest to the ribose, are referred to as the alpha, beta, consequently, it is closely related to the adenosine nucleotide, a monomer of RNA.
ATP is highly soluble in water and is stable in solutions between pH6. This is because the strength of the bonds between the groups in ATP is less than the strength of the hydrogen bonds, between its products, and water.
Nuclear chemistry is a sub-discipline of chemistry that involves the reactions of unstable. The substance initially involved in a reaction are called reactants or reagents. Chemical reactions are characterized by a chemical change, and they yield one or more products. Reactions often consist of a sequence of individual sub-steps, the elementary reactions. Chemical reactions are described with chemical equations, which present the starting materials, end products.
Chemical reactions happen at a characteristic reaction rate at a given temperature, typically, reaction rates increase with increasing temperature because there is more thermal energy available to reach the activation energy necessary for breaking bonds between atoms. Reactions may proceed in the forward or reverse direction until they go to completion or reach equilibrium, Reactions that proceed in the forward direction to approach equilibrium are often described as spontaneous, requiring no input of free energy to go forward.
Non-spontaneous reactions require input of energy to go forward. Different chemical reactions are used in combinations during chemical synthesis in order to obtain a desired product, in biochemistry, a consecutive series of chemical reactions form metabolic pathways.
These reactions are catalyzed by protein enzymes. Chemical reactions such as combustion in fire, fermentation and the reduction of ores to metals were known since antiquity, in the Middle Ages, chemical transformations were studied by Alchemists. They attempted, in particular, to lead into gold, for which purpose they used reactions of lead.
The process involved heating of sulfate and nitrate minerals such as sulfate, alum. In the 17th century, Johann Rudolph Glauber produced hydrochloric acid and sodium sulfate by reacting sulfuric acid, further optimization of sulfuric acid technology resulted in the contact process in the s, and the Haber process was developed in — for ammonia synthesis. From the 16th century, researchers including Jan Baptist van Helmont, Robert Boyle, the phlogiston theory was proposed in by Johann Joachim Becher.
It postulated the existence of an element called phlogiston, which was contained within combustible bodies. This proved to be false in by Antoine Lavoisier who found the explanation of the combustion as reaction with oxygen from the air.
Many chemical compounds have a numerical identifier assigned by the Chemical Abstracts Service. For example, water is composed of two atoms bonded to one oxygen atom, the chemical formula is H2O. A compound can be converted to a different chemical composition by interaction with a chemical compound via a chemical reaction. In this process, bonds between atoms are broken in both of the compounds, and then bonds are reformed so that new associations are made between atoms.
A chemical element bonded to a chemical element is not a chemical compound since only one element. Examples are the diatomic hydrogen and the polyatomic molecule sulfur. Chemical compounds have a unique and defined chemical structure held together in a spatial arrangement by chemical bonds.
Pure chemical elements are not considered chemical compounds, failing the two or more atom requirement, though they often consist of molecules composed of multiple atoms. There is varying and sometimes inconsistent nomenclature differentiating substances, which include truly non-stoichiometric examples, from chemical compounds, other compounds regarded as chemically identical may have varying amounts of heavy or light isotopes of the constituent elements, which changes the ratio of elements by mass slightly.
Characteristic properties of compounds include that elements in a compound are present in a definite proportion, for example, the molecule of the compound water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen in a ratio of 2,1.
In addition, compounds have a set of properties. The physical and chemical properties of compounds differ from those of their constituent elements, however, mixtures can be created by mechanical means alone, but a compound can be created only by a chemical reaction.
Some mixtures are so combined that they have some properties similar to compounds. Other examples of compound-like mixtures include intermetallic compounds and solutions of metals in a liquid form of ammonia. Compounds may be described using formulas in various formats, for compounds that exist as molecules, the formula for the molecular unit is shown.
For polymeric materials, such as minerals and many metal oxides, the elements in a chemical formula are normally listed in a specific order, called the Hill system. Organismo — In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system, such as an animal, plant, fungus, protist, archaeon, or bacterium. All known types of organisms are capable of some degree of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development and homeostasis. An organism consists of one or more cells, when it has one cell it is known as an organism.
Most unicellular organisms are of microscopic scale and are thus described as microorganisms. Humans are multicellular organisms composed of trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues. An organism may be either a prokaryote or a eukaryote, prokaryotes are represented by two separate domains—bacteria and archaea. Eukaryotic organisms are characterized by the presence of a cell nucleus.
Fungi, animals and plants are examples of kingdoms of organisms within the eukaryotes, estimates on the number of Earths current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which only about 1. In , a set of genes from the last universal ancestor of all living organisms living was identified. The term organism first appeared in the English language in and it is directly related to the term organization. There is a tradition of defining organisms as self-organizing beings.
An organism may be defined as an assembly of molecules functioning as a more or less stable whole that exhibits the properties of life. Dictionary definitions can be broad, using such as any living structure, such as a plant, animal, fungus or bacterium, capable of growth.
Many definitions exclude viruses and possible man-made non-organic life forms, as viruses are dependent on the machinery of a host cell for reproduction. A superorganism is an organism consisting of individuals working together as a single functional or social unit. There has been controversy about the best way to define the organism, several contributions are responses to the suggestion that the category of organism may well not be adequate in biology.
Viruses are not typically considered to be organisms because they are incapable of autonomous reproduction and this controversy is problematic because some cellular organisms are also incapable of independent survival and live as obligatory intracellular parasites.
A cell is the smallest unit of life that can replicate independently, the study of cells is called cell biology. Cells consist of cytoplasm enclosed within a membrane, which contains many such as proteins.
Organisms can be classified as unicellular or multicellular, while the number of cells in plants and animals varies from species to species, humans contain more than 10 trillion cells. Most plant and animal cells are only under a microscope. The cell was discovered by Robert Hooke in , who named the unit for its resemblance to cells inhabited by Christian monks in a monastery.
Cells emerged on Earth at least 3. Prokaryotes are single-celled organisms, while eukaryotes can be either single-celled or multicellular, prokaryotic cells were the first form of life on Earth, characterised by having vital biological processes including cell signaling and being self-sustaining.
They are simpler and smaller than eukaryotic cells, and lack membrane-bound organelles such as the nucleus, prokaryotes include two of the domains of life, bacteria and archaea.
The DNA of a prokaryotic cell consists of a chromosome that is in direct contact with the cytoplasm. The nuclear region in the cytoplasm is called the nucleoid, most prokaryotes are the smallest of all organisms ranging from 0. Though most prokaryotes have both a cell membrane and a wall, there are exceptions such as Mycoplasma and Thermoplasma which only possess the cell membrane layer.
The envelope gives rigidity to the cell and separates the interior of the cell from its environment, the cell wall consists of peptidoglycan in bacteria, and acts as an additional barrier against exterior forces. It also prevents the cell from expanding and bursting from osmotic pressure due to a hypotonic environment, some eukaryotic cells also have a cell wall.
Inside the cell is the region that contains the genome, ribosomes. The genetic material is found in the cytoplasm. Prokaryotes can carry extrachromosomal DNA elements called plasmids, which are usually circular, linear bacterial plasmids have been identified in several species of spirochete bacteria, including members of the genus Borrelia notably Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme disease.
Though not forming a nucleus, the DNA is condensed in a nucleoid, plasmids encode additional genes, such as antibiotic resistance genes. Nutriente — A nutrient is a component in foods that an organism uses to survive and grow. Macronutrients provide the energy an organisms metabolic system needs to function while micronutrients provide the necessary cofactors for metabolism to be carried out. Both types of nutrients can be acquired from the environment, micronutrients are used to build and repair tissues and to regulate body processes while macronutrients are converted to, and used for, energy.
Methods of nutrient intake are different for plants and animals, plants take in nutrients directly from the soil through their roots and from the atmosphere through their leaves.
Animals and protists have specialized digestive systems that work to break down macronutrients for energy, organic nutrients consist of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and vitamins. Inorganic chemical compounds such as minerals, water, and oxygen may also be considered nutrients.
A nutrient is considered if it must be obtained from an external source either because the organism cannot synthesize it or because insufficient quantities are produced. Nutrients needed in small amounts are called micronutrients while those needed in large quantities are called macronutrients.
The effects of nutrients are dose-dependent, shortages are called deficiencies, macronutrients are defined in several different ways. The chemical elements humans consume in the largest quantities are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, the classes of chemical compounds humans consume in the largest quantities and which provide bulk energy are carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Water and atmospheric oxygen also must be consumed in large quantities, calcium, salt, magnesium, and potassium are sometimes added to the list of macronutrients because they are required in large quantities compared to other vitamins and minerals. They are sometimes referred to as the macrominerals, carbohydrates are compounds made up of types of sugars.
Carbohydrates are classified by their number of units, monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides. Proteins are organic compounds that consist of amino acids joined by peptide bonds, the body cannot manufacture some of the amino acids, the diet must supply them. Proteins, in nutrition, are broken down through digestion by proteases back into free amino acids, fats consist of a glycerin molecule with three fatty acids attached. Fatty acids are unbranched hydrocarbon chains,1 connected by single bonds alone or by double and single bonds.
Fats are needed to keep cell membranes functioning properly, to insulate body organs against shock, to body temperature stable.