Illustrators of the New World. The Image in the Spanish Scientific Expeditions of the EnlightenmentIn the Eighteenth Century, with the boom in the exploration of the Earth, most travellers and explorers had painters and illustrators at their sides who recorded their adventures, even their deaths, merte exotic locations they visited, the aborigines, the landscapes or the strange creatures or plants that inhabited them. The presence of artists muerte de diana boldo increase in these types of exploration companies, sent by Spain, trenbolone face bloat order to recognise the natural resources and the imperial control of their boodo. Ilustradores del Muerte de diana boldo Mundo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial by-nc Spain 3. The link between artists and science has been well muerhe since ancient times for the interest of the scientists, especially the naturalists, to depict the discovered world and to show it to all.
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In the Eighteenth Century, with the boom in the exploration of the Earth, most travellers and explorers had painters and illustrators at their sides who recorded their adventures, even their deaths, the exotic locations they visited, the aborigines, the landscapes or the strange creatures or plants that inhabited them. The presence of artists would increase in these types of exploration companies, sent by Spain, in order to recognise the natural resources and the imperial control of their territories.
Ilustradores del Nuevo Mundo. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial by-nc Spain 3. The link between artists and science has been well known since ancient times for the interest of the scientists, especially the naturalists, to depict the discovered world and to show it to all.
In the Eighteenth Century, with the boom in the exploration of the Earth, most travellers and explorers had painters and illustrators at their sides to record their adventures; even their deaths, the exotic locations they visited, the aborigines, the landscapes or the strange creatures or plants that inhabited them.
The main characters, Malaspina, Cook and La Perouse, counted skilled painters among their men who left images of these other worlds so distant from old Europe for posterity Stafford, ; Quilley and Bonehill, figure 1. The many European courts boasted about their scientific discoveries, the collections of natural objects that would fill their cabinets of curiosities and their natural history, but also about their collections of scientific illustrations, their plates and prints, many of them coming from the scientific expeditions.
As Mauricio Nieto said, these scientific art productions must have been enough to satisfy the monarchy, the aristocratic market and the most important naturalists of Europe Nieto Olarte, In the case of Spain, since the Sixteenth Century drawings have been found relating to the Spanish expansion in America and their discoveries of the natural world. Armadillos, opossums, llamas, alligators and other strange creatures appear depicted together with fantastic beings from European medieval imagery and unknown plants such as the tobacco, the potato and the tomato.
On one of the manuscript's first pages there appears chamorro wheat with many names synonymous with Gaspar Bauhin, Mathiolo, Brunsfelsio, Dodoneo, Valerius Cordo, Gesnero, Fuchs, Cesalpino, Trago, etc. Cienfuegos made a coloured drawing of wheat, basically as was his habit, highlighting the ears, stem, leaves and the root. The drawing gains valuable authority when Gesner used the drawing, giving it the name Triticum, something that was repeated by Fuchs as well as other authors, who used the same drawing.
He used the drawing to differentiate botanical varieties, for example flax, concluding that the drawing was as essential as the descriptions written by authors such as Clusio and Mathias Lobel figure 2. Bernardo de Cienfuegos, Historia de las plantas. Already on the Iturriaga trip to the Orinoco, two artists accompanied the botanists in order to depict the plants they discovered according to the canons of the new science.
It was necessary to draw not only the external aspect of the plant, but also as Linnaeus advised to take apart the sexual organs to see the number and how they were laid out, so as to be able to classify them. A direction that would remain firm in the Enlightened Century and would only break to an extent with the Malaspina expedition and the subsequent theoretical appearance of Alexander von Humboldt's landscape painting Blunt and Stearn, ; de Pedro, What those painters depicted, many of them trained in the Academies of Fine Arts, made the scientific descriptions credible.
It is true that if the Burin, the Brush and the Chisel withdraw their designs, models and prints for a day; since they most usefully instruct us, Sciences would remain silent or dead, when, on the contrary, animated by these noble instruments, the art of drawing shows the curious investigator what is contained within the great machine of the universe.
And if not, tell me, when man sees so many varieties of plants and herbs, such a crowd of life that populates the different compositions of the land, the sea and the air, if the Drawing does not help him to imagine them? When or how could the vast spaces of sea and land be seen, measured, or walked if the Design, in a word the Map, has not captured them?
Two years later, in , Tiburcio de Aguirre clearly marked the relationship between drawing and scientific progress:. What science could shine in its total independence from the drawing, lines, proportions, and models? What would become of anatomy?
Without your help we would see the brightest light of Medicine extinguished in the tight delineations of even the smallest parts of the human structure. What about the Botany and Natural History? Naked and poorly weakened, deprived of prints and figures, which distinguish and depict the immense variety of species that glaze and beautify the extensive nature garden.
Although as Jesusa Vega shows Vega, In the mid-Eighteenth Century, the tension caused by the clash between the Spanish and Portuguese was about to cause a serious conflict in the South American arena. The foreign policy of Ferdinand VI, led by his minister Carvajal, attempted to solve the problem by signing, in , the Treaty of Madrid, which recognized Spanish and Portuguese possessions in southern America.
In the Orinoco expedition team it should be noted that, among the mapmakers, instrument keepers, surgeons, and so on, was included an interesting group of naturalists - Antonio Condal and Benito Paltor; scientific artists and Juan de Dios Castel and Bruno Salvador Carmona - led by P. We know that on the journey, the Spanish artists practiced naturalistic drawing under the Swedish botanist's guidance and made some experimental drawings of fish whilst aboard the Santa Ana.
As for artistic results we can verify that they made drawings, 95 signed by Carmona, 61 by Castel, while 44 were unsigned. Regarding their specialities; two maps, botanical, 79 zoological and four ethnological drawings were preserved, which were a perfect demonstration of art in natural history, although it is necessary to comment that in the botanical drawings they still did not use the systematic anatomic dissections that we will see in later drawings of the Spanish expeditions, although in a few of them we see some detail.
Also the use of colour was limited and remained in a classical style, although it is interesting how the drawings were framed in that the plants themselves go beyond giving an interesting spatial sense.
Juan de Dios Castel. In , after a few years of continuous conflict along the Hispano-Lusitano borders as a result of the failure of the Boundary Treaty, the Spanish and Portuguese authorities; the former represented by the Count of Floridablanca and the latter by the Minister Francisco Inocencio Sousa Countinho, signed a new Boundary Treaty in San Ildefonso for their possessions in America and Asia. As had happened before, the responsibility of fixing the dividing lines fell to various Commissions, which were, in the Spanish case, set out in four administrative areas.
Requena ended his Commission in , returning to the governorship of Mainas, and two years later he went back to Spain where he became a member of the Council of the Indies and of the Council of State. As well as an impressive cartography that was carried out by Requena himself, a collection of watercolours has survived in the Committee at the Catholic University of Washington, Oliveira Lima library although there is no recognised signature we know that Requena refers many times to the artist Jose Anselmo Cartagena.
The drawings show the Guayaquil River rafts; later better known from a similar drawing in Humboldt's works, a drawing explaining how to make a boat in the jungle by opening the trunk of trees, as well as a series of scenes where we see fights with the Amazonian Indians, the way of fishing, the different types of boats, the measurements of the engineers and mathematicians, the torrents or even Requena himself talking to indigenous people through an interpreter.
In short, it is a jewel for understanding how the expedition moved and lived in the Amazon region in middle of Eighteenth Century figure 5. Library of Congress, Washington. As for the cartographic work of Requena, Eric Beerman Beerman, has noted a collection of eight maps of the Amazon region that are currently kept in the Library of Congress in Washington, which complement the Spanish collections and are also peculiar for being decorated with scenes that often show the Indigenous people in contrast to the European expeditionary members; man in a state of nature facing the enlightened and their rational world, something that years later we find in the Malaspina expedition.
If we stick to the expeditions aimed purely at knowledge of the New World's nature, the Royal Studio of Natural history and the Royal Botanical Garden of Madrid were in charge of carrying out the new plans, similar to what was happening in London and Paris. If we take a brief glance at the thought of the Spanish botanists of the Enlightenment, in the time of the emergence of the expeditionary movement, we can understand why they were obsessed with visually capturing the new natural world they were discovering.
Just the example of two botanists, who were connected to the Royal Botanic Garden of Madrid, is enough; Miguel Barnades, considered the person responsible for introducing the Linnaean System to Spain and Antonio Palau, the translator of Linnaeus. On page 12 he talks about the history of Botany and begins to describe the time of the Restorers in the Sixteenth Century, saying:. Talking of important Spanish botanists of that time, he notes Francisco Mico who discovered numerous plants in Catalonia, New Castile and Guadalupe and sent descriptions and many drawings to Dalecampio who put them in his General History published in Lyon in Segunda parte del libro de las cosas que se traen de nuestras Indias Occidentales.
He also highlighted the ferns drawn by Plumier in America. After commenting on the important discoveries of the recent times at the far ends of the Earth, by the disciples of Linnaeus among others, he said p. Barnades himself included 13 pictures at the end of his work Dom. The Commentators were often mistaken in their inquiries of the species; and for this reason it was appropriate to paint and describe them, so that the names of those known were not confused with the unknown.
Among the Authors from long ago, few forms are found to have perfection; and although in our century there has been great progress in the art of drawing, artists still commit many mistakes in the depiction of the smallest parts of plants. Many forms that the Ancients left mislead us, showing as straight the plants which by nature are creepers; and the same happens by expressing large trees, herbs and small plants with equal magnitude.
Forms are engraved in wood, copper and tin: Some Authors draw forms in outline or in profile, and these are lighter than the illuminated ones; because the colours usually fade and obscure the finer profiles of plants and flowers. Afterwards he gave some examples of authors who engraved botanical forms such as Dillenio, Rivinio, Clusio, Plumier, Bauhinio, Lobel, Mathiolo, etc.
Botanic Expedition to the Viceroyalty of Peru — They should strictly follow the orders of the botanists detailing, when important, whichever part of the plant even by increasing its size. Also it was expected that the botanists give a size model for the plates so as to make them uniform and an adequate size for later publications, thereby avoiding the cost of reduction.
In reference to colour it was indicated that they were satisfied with illuminating those rare or beautiful plants which deserved it, and in this case it was recommended to depict a flower, a fruit, and some parts, leaving the rest in ink, in this case to be coloured on the return to Spain. This was also the case for any special bird or others deigned worthy to be described and drawn. Finally it was indicated that the botanists would be helped with the formation of herbariums and manuscripts, etc.
These instructions were in fact quite similar to others circulating in Europe, since they all also responded to the same scientific paradigm, although in general the Spanish scientific expeditions were more influenced by the French model Pelayo, Outside this we can see for example the Portuguese case. They also sometimes refused to draw the fructification parts first before drawing the whole plant, before it had withered, meaning that some plates did not contain these parts.
They had also refused to repeat the plates which had allegedly been lost in the wreck of the ship San Pedro de Alcantara off the coast of Portugal.
Despite the botanical leader's negative comments, after the death in May of the artist Brunete, Ruiz - who the artist had named executor in his will - praised the conduct of his painter on these excursions near Pasco, who no doubt had lost his life by being over-zealous in his mission.
In , the expedition members had already set out a plan for carrying out the work of classification, organization, and orders for engravers and illustrators.
In the third year and there had already been complaints from the rest of the team to Jovellanos - then Minister of Grace and Justice - at the slow pace and inadequacies of this painter's work, aggravated by Rubio's supposed illness, in he was finally assigned to the Royal Porcelain Factory.
Despite the problems, this expedition was one of the few to offer scientific results, while at the same time, having a good sample of pictorial work by the naturalist artists.
Zoological drawings, however, followed general, even simpler patterns than the botanical ones, albeit with some simple detail of the habitat. There was an attempt to revive this editorial project with the return of Ferdinand VII in , but it did not achieve its objectives because of organizational and economic problems that finally led to all materials being deposited in the Royal Botanic Garden of Madrid in figure 9.
In the first depictions he made for the King in and , in order to get him to authorize the expedition, we can observe some of the objective interests that came up in Metropolitan science in other countries, such as knowledge of natural treasures and the formation of studios and botanical gardens Peset and Puig-Samper, The political circumstances in Spain were not conducive to the expedition's creation, so it had to wait a few more years.
Meanwhile, Mutis performed his medical jobs and contributed to forming the necessary educational foundations to create an enlightened elite in New Granada. He was associated with artists who drew very strange plants, and who painted the native animals in oil at normal scale. The author of this article has seen a part of this valuable collection, formed before Mutis became the object of the generosity of his sovereign. Nevertheless, once the headquarters were established in Mariquita, the expedition created a genuine scientific institution with centralized tasks, dedicated to various disciplines where the training of Creole scientists made the activities professional.
It achieved some autonomy from Madrid to create a small scientific community with national characteristics. Regarding how these wonderful plates were done, sometimes they were only part-coloured, or anatomies or outlined the form of the plants while only emphasising some part, we have the testimony of Mutis himself to understand something:. Daniela Bleichmar rightly pointed out that for Mutis the images were an integral part of the project to explore the American nature and formed a part of European science's globalization project, which was to create and circulate abstractions about nature that were visually-favoured Bleichmar, Cavanilles was therefore able to describe and study many plants arriving from the expeditions without moving from his studio, in a research separated from its place of origin and the time when the plant was found.
The dried plant was less showy, had largely lost its colour, but was the real material which later botanists could compare their specimens with. It was the necessary contract for the idealized type of naturalistic icon. In any case, as Nieto Olarte pointed out Nieto Olarte, In , Mutis was ordered to return to Santa Fe, where he was to reorganize the expedition which he was allowed to recruit new painters and assistants for, among them were his nephew Sinforoso Mutis and Francisco Antonio Zea, who were soon arrested and expatriated for participating in the pro-independence conspiracy against the Spanish Crown.
After a few years, the Spanish artists, who he gave advice to in order to perfect their talents, set up a school for young native artists. The Indians, both mixed and natural races showed extraordinary disposition for copying the shape and colour of the plants.
The analysis or the anatomy of the fruiting parts was added at the bottom of the drawing. Generally each plant was depicted on three or four large sheets, both in colour and in black. Colours were drawn in part from native colouring materials and unknown in Europe. Never has a collection of drawings been made so luxuriously, nor on such a large scale.
Mutis had taken the most admired botanical works of his time as a model: He also commented that Mutis had made duplicates with the idea of sending a copy to Spain and keeping the other in Santa Fe, while mulling over the idea of installing a printer at home and teaching the engraving trade to the same natives he had taught to paint.