Manfred Ewald, 76; Oversaw Doping of East Germany's Olympic AthletesDeutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR conducted a decades-long ciclo de boldenona durateston e stanozolol of coercive administration and distribution of performance-enhancing drugssuch as testosterone and other anabolic steroids to its elite athletes for the purpose east german doping trials bolstering the state's image and prestige by winning medals in international championships such as the Olympics east german doping trials, known officially as State Plan The drug regimens, given either with or without triasl knowledge of the athletes, trialz in victories in international competitions, including the Olympic Games. East Germany had been a pioneering state in doping, so much that it was considered trizls be the inventor of doping. Systematic doping of athletes ended with the fall of communism in East Germany inbefore German reunification a year later. Many former athletes suffer from health problems related to steroid consumption.
Doping in East Germany - Wikipedia
Deutsche Demokratische Republik or DDR conducted a decades-long program of coercive administration and distribution of performance-enhancing drugs , such as testosterone and other anabolic steroids to its elite athletes for the purpose of bolstering the state's image and prestige by winning medals in international championships such as the Olympics , known officially as State Plan The drug regimens, given either with or without the knowledge of the athletes, resulted in victories in international competitions, including the Olympic Games.
East Germany had been a pioneering state in doping, so much that it was considered to be the inventor of doping. Systematic doping of athletes ended with the fall of communism in East Germany in , before German reunification a year later. Many former athletes suffer from health problems related to steroid consumption. Following the end of the World War II , sport became increasingly politicized on the world stage. International competitions, like the Olympics, various World Cups, and similar large-scale events began to be recognized as more than purely athletic enterprises, whence actual competition between the West and the East increased in other areas.
Inventions in broadcasting, such as television, amplified media attention to the point of putting financial support and perceived national reputations all at stake. Aspects around sports funding, coupled with the egos of nations that were in ideological conflict with one another, meant, that sporting competitions with their participation would offer a chance to demonstrate which country was superior.
For Eastern Bloc states, the Cold War was a time, when right- and left-wing political powers of the world constantly vied for supremacy politically, economically and militarily; one example of it being the Space Race.
The GDR closed itself to the sporting world in May In GDR, the origin for sports culture was found following World War II, when people were poor, malnourished, and unhealthy; state ideology also regarded its people as having been 'in need of guidance.
The left-wing ideology of East Germany then progressed: Accordingly, sportspeople's achievements were attributed to the state. But career opportunities depended on political loyalty.
The GDR differed from the states of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany only due to advances in science, and in the incredible use of science and medicine to aid the state's push for dominance. The GDR's desire to ostensibly promote Soviet ideologies, mixed with advancements in medicine, inevitably led the GDR to use their athletes as a propaganda tool.
State-endorsed doping began with the Cold War, when every Eastern Bloc gold was an ideological victory. Most children would compete in youth sport centers and be scouted by the government, which resulted in the best prospects being taken for the purpose of intense Olympic training. These children were expected to deliver great victories, and the state was willing to use anything at its disposal to ensure that. The advances in medicine and science meant that use of steroids , amphetamines , human growth hormones and blood boosting were common practice behind the scenes in training centers for professional athletes.
The Sportvereinigung Dynamo English: Sport Club Dynamo  was especially singled out as a center for doping in the former East Germany. The results of East German sportspeople appeared at the time to be an immense success: At these Olympics, the GDR, a country of 17 million, collected nine gold medals. Four years later, the total was 20, and in , it doubled again to The results were impressive for East Germany but devastating for the athletes involved: Often, doping was carried out without the knowledge of the athletes, some of them as young as ten years of age.
It is estimated, that around 10, former athletes bear the physical and mental scars of years of drug abuse,  one of them is former swimmer Rica Reinisch , a triple Olympic champion and world record-setter at the Moscow Games in , has since suffered numerous miscarriages and recurring ovarian cysts.
While the doping worked in achieving victories for the state and advancing a relatively small nation to prominence on the world stage, many concerns remain. All victories by East German athletes are tainted due to the widespread use of drugs. Many former doctors and former athletes struggling with the side effects are bringing sports directors to court. The legacy of East German sport outlasted the country.
At the same time, the Kreischa testing laboratory near Dresden passed into government control, which was reputed to administer around 12, tests a year on East German athletes, but without any being penalised.
In reverse of what the IAAF hoped, sending her home to East Germany meant that she was free to train unchecked with anabolic steroids, if she wanted to, and then compete for another gold medal, which indeed she won. After the Slupianek affair, East German athletes were secretly tested before they left the country.
Those who tested positive, were removed from international competition. Usually, such withdrawals were temporary, as they were intended to serve less as a punishment, but as a means to protect both the athlete and the East German team from international sanctions.
As it was, the media first in East Germany, and later outside, would usually be informed that the withdrawal was due to an injury sustained during training.
If the athlete was being doped in secret, as was often the case, their doctor would usually be ordered to fabricate a medical condition so as to justify the withdrawal of the athlete. The justification was also served as such to the athlete. The results of East Germany's internal drug tests were never made public — almost nothing emerged from the East German sports schools and laboratories. A rare exception was the visit by the sports writer and former athlete Doug Gilbert of the Edmonton Sun , who said:.
Other reports came from the occasional athlete who fled to the West. There were fifteen escapees between and One, the ski-jumper Hans-Georg Aschenbach , said: There are gymnasts among the girls who have to wear corsets from the age of 18 because their spine and their ligaments have become so worn Then on 26 August , well after the former GDR had disbanded itself to accede to the Federal Republic of Germany in , the records were opened, and the evidence was there, that the Stasi , the GDR state secret police, supervised systematic doping of East German athletes from until reunification in Virtually no East German athlete ever failed an official drugs test, though Stasi files show that many did indeed produce positive tests at Kreischa , the Saxon laboratory German: Jean-Pierre de Mondenard, an expert in performance-enhancing drugs, contended that doping existed in other countries both communist and capitalist, but the difference with East Germany was that it was a state policy.
Many former club officials of Sportsvereinigung Dynamo and some athletes found themselves charged after the dissolution of GDR. A special page on the internet was created by doping victims trying to gain justice and compensation, listing people involved in doping in the GDR.
Two former Dynamo Berlin club doctors, Dieter Binus, chief of the national women's team from to 80, and Bernd Pansold , in charge of the sports medicine centre in East-Berlin, were committed for trial for allegedly supplying 19 teenagers with illegal substances. Daniela Hunger and Andrea Pollack are the former Sport Club Dynamo athletes who publicly came forward and admitted to doping, accused their coaches.
Manfred Ewald, who had imposed blanket doping in East Germany, was given a month suspended sentence to the outrage of his victims. In , fifteen years after the German reunification , the manufacturer of the drugs in former East Germany, Jenapharm , still finds itself involved in numerous lawsuits from doping victims, being sued by almost former athletes. Based on an admission given by Andrea Pollack, the United States Olympic Committee asked for the redistribution of gold medals won in the Summer Olympics.
In rejecting the American petition on behalf of its women's medley relay team in Montreal and a similar petition from the British Olympic Association on behalf of Sharron Davies , the IOC made it clear that it wanted to discourage any such appeals in the future. In Brigitte Berendonk and Werner Franke , two opponents of the doping, published several theses which had been drafted former researchers in the GDR doping products which were at the Military Medical Academy Bad Saarow.
Based on this work, in their book translated from German as Doping Documents they were able to reconstruct the practice of doping as it was organized by the State on many great athletes from the GDR, including Marita Koch and Heike Drechsler , who have denied the allegations. Brigitte Berendonk survived a lawsuit where Drechsler accused her of lying. The lawsuit essentially validates the book.
In , one of East Germany's best sprinters, Renate Neufeld , fled to the West with the Bulgarian she later married. A year later she said that she had been told to take drugs supplied by coaches while training to represent East Germany in the Olympic Games. She brought with her to the West grey tablets and green powder she said had been given to her, to members of her club, and to other athletes.
The West German doping analyst Manfred Donike reportedly identified them as anabolic steroids. She said she stayed quiet for a year for the sake of her family. But when her father then lost his job and her sister was expelled from her handball club, she decided to tell her story.
Andreas Krieger , then known as Heidi Krieger, competed as a woman in the East German athletics team, winning the gold medal for shot put in the European Championships in Athletics. From the age of 16 onward, Krieger was systematically doped with anabolic steroids , which have significant androgenic effects on the body. She had already had doubts about her gender identity, and the chemical changes resulting from the steroids only exacerbated them. At the trial of Manfred Ewald , leader of the East German sports program and president of his East Germany's Olympic committee and Manfred Hoeppner , East German medical director in Berlin in , Krieger testified that the drugs he had been given had contributed to his trans-sexuality; he already had thoughts about it, but in his words the effects of the doping deprived him of the right to "find out for myself which sex I wanted to be.
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