Do anabolic reactions synthesize NADH and ATP?Producs anabolic reactions produce nadh and atp - Metabolism of Microbes. All the biochemical reactions that take place in a cell. Equipoise precio leading to the synthesis of a new microbial cell has 3 requirements: Raw Materials - nutrients composed of carbon carbohydrates, proteins, etc. Bacteria will then use this reducing power to build its cellular components it will reduce other compounds in this process.
do anabolic reactions synthesize NADH and ATP? | Yahoo Answers
Chapter 8 - Metabolism of Microbes. All the biochemical reactions that take place in a cell. Metabolism leading to the synthesis of a new microbial cell has 3 requirements: Raw Materials - nutrients composed of carbon carbohydrates, proteins, etc. Bacteria will then use this reducing power to build its cellular components it will reduce other compounds in this process.
Entry Mechanisms - Raw materials from the environment are transported into the cells by various mechanisms. Catabolic Reactions - reactions in which raw materials are broken down into smaller molecules precursor molecules ; there are 12 precursor molecules that are required to synthesize building blocks amino acids, monosaccharides, nucleotides, fatty acids that will build a new cell.
Anabolic Reactions - reactions that build up larger molecules from smaller ones: Entry Mechanisms - Many materials that move into the cell are moving from low to high concentration; this requires ATP; remember the bacterial is usually hypertonic to its environment.
Aerobic Metabolism We'll use E. Aerobic means that this type of metabolism requires oxygen. Precursor Molecules - A minimum of 3 different pathways are required to produce all 12 precursor molecules: Stored Energy - The principal compound that stores chemical energy in all cells is ATP adenosine triphosphate.
These bonds are among the most highly reactive bonds found in biochemicals. They are called high-energy bonds. The phosphate groups that are joined in ATP by high-energy bonds are readily donated to other compounds.
These compounds that receive a phosphate group from ATP are termed phosphorylated compounds. After receiving a high-energy phosphate, phosphorylated compounds can then participate in chemical reactions that would not occur if the compounds were unphosphorylated.
This is why we say that the energy "stored" in the bonds of ATP is used to drive other metabolic reactions. Some of these compounds are hydrogen-carriers and some are electron-carriers. This hydrogen-carrier then passes hydrogen electrons to an electron-carrier in the chain; the hydrogen ions are pumped out of the cell or out of the inner mitochondrial compartment, if you're talking about eukaryotes.
At the end of the chain, electrons are accepted by oxygen to form water. The final electron acceptor is oxygen!! This is why this process is called aerobic respiration!
ATPase is an enzyme located in the cell membrane of prokaryotes; in eukaryotes it's located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This process is called chemiosmosis. Central metabolism described below begins with the monosaccharide glucose. Most organisms have other catabolic pathways, which use substrates other than glucose ex.
These pathways all eventually feed into central metabolism at various points. The initial reactions in glycolysis require ATP. Later reactions in glycolysis produce a small amount of ATP. The main function of glycolysis is to split glucose.
Kreb's Cycle - Some of the pyruvate formed by glycolysis is used in biosynthesis, the rest is oxidized to another precursor molecule, acetyl CoA coenzyme A.
Acetyl-CoA then enters the Kreb's Cycle by combining with a precursor molecule oxaloacetate to form citrate. In this cycle, only a small amount of ATP is formed called substrate level phosphorylation. Organisms that can't make a given building block grow only if that molecule is provided in the medium or diet. Humans are unable to make 9 of the 20, so these nutrients must come from our diets. Polymerization - In these reactions, building blocks produced in biosynthesis are joined to form macromolecules.
For most macromolecules, building blocks must be joined in a specific order. Some polymerization is determined directly by the organism's DNA ex.
Other reactions are indirectly determined by DNA ex. In the latter, building blocks are ordered by the enzymes that catalyze the polymerization reactions. Assembly - Assembly of macromolecules into cellular structures ex. Anaerobic metabolism allows cells to grow in the absence of oxygen. Strict anaerobes are capable of only anaerobic metabolism.
Anaerobic Respiration - Involves an electron transport chain, but uses a compound other than oxygen as the final electron acceptor, allowing the cell to generate ATP by chemiosmosis. These organisms, including E. Some microbes reduce nitrate to nitrite. Some microbes reduce nitrite further to nitrogen gas. These organisms, called sulfur reducers , play a role in the sulfur cycle. Sulfate is reduced to hydrogen sulfide gas.
Fermentation - This type of anaerobic metabolism uses no electron transport chain. Fermentation generates fewer ATP per molecule of substrate. Because many molecules of substrate must be metabolized to supply a cell's ATP requirements, the substrate must be in abundance in order for the microbe to grow. Sugars are usually the only substrate that can be used in fermentation. Muscle tissue of animals also carries out lactic acid fermentation, when deprived of oxygen during strenuous exercise - this is what makes your muscles sore.
Pyruvic Acid Oxidation - pyruvic acid is oxidized to lactic acid using NADH, thus using up the reducing power stored in glycolysis. This type of fermentation is typical of yeast, a type of fungi. In this pathway, pyruvic acid is converted to carbon dioxide and ethanol. Microbes are classified according to nutritional class, which depends on 2 factors: The source of carbon atoms it uses to make precursor metabolites: Can have combinations of all of these: Alcoholic Fermentation This type of fermentation is typical of yeast, a type of fungi.