Legal.High.E01.720p.HDTV.x264.AAC-YYeTsHer research interests include text-linguistics, discourse analysis, historical pragmatics, corpus linguistics, translation, and language winstrol pct needed. She has published lega in these areas and is the co- editor of several collections of essays on reformulation and paraphrase, lexicography and translation, and audiovisual translation. She has recently investigated issues in intercultural pragmatics and audiovisual legal high 2 yyets, with her most recent work being a monograph on the translation of politeness This collection of innovative contributions explores these different manifestations, and offers a snapshot of the state of legal high 2 yyets art of a dynamic and ever-evolving field of study. Shapes and Their Llegal.
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Please contact mpub-help umich. For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy. Although unauthorized and unlicensed, the programs are streamed and downloaded on tablets and smartphones, free of charge. ZMZ allow many thousands of Chinese viewers to devour foreign fare e.
In scale, organization, and professionalism, ZMZ typify slippage between state regulation and market-driven media consumption. These online communities translate foreign television and film and make them available to all, online. They are made up of college students and young professionals with an ethic of teamwork, commitment, and passion.
These communities are self-selecting; members must have the available time, skills, and computer literacy to participate. ZMZ are hierarchical associations consisting of a hundred or so active members, much like any IT company or startup. Translation is the prime mover, matching Chinese counterparts to colloquial foreign lines and quips; yet there is much more that ZMZ do, in technical skill, timing, layout, occasional annotations, and streamlined workflows.
ZMZ groups share a common, collective purpose, competitive drive, and an audience of many thousands, even millions for a product that is shared, not sold.
These groups are driven and resolved to produce quality Chinese translations promptly, and outplay other teams. Who do the ZMZ reach? People seeking entertainment outside ordinary platforms and circuits want foreign materials, language, and culture; they prefer or tolerate unlicensed , out-of-bounds programs with frisson of the exotic.
The unlicensed , foreign entertainment undoubtedly flags attention from trade groups, as well as state regulators, and censors of audiovisual fare. Yet ZMZ are not criminal file-sharing, but gray market, paralegal activities. Chinese subtitle groups and online audiences want to transgress national limitations and get in touch with global popular culture. With these factors—foreign, unlicensed entertainment—ZMZ audiences share similar characteristics to the ZMZ team members themselves: How many viewers are there?
As unofficial, informal consumption, there are millions. What kind of reward? For audiences, the reward is free entertainment, streamed or downloaded via ZMZ from a variety of foreign sources.
For ZMZ members, they receive virtual currency, displayed online in the net, a conspicuous sign of digital affluence. Like anime fansubbers, ZMZ members seek out exotic foreign material, forms of cosmopolitanism. Anime fansubbers are passionate about their favorites and fanatical about sharing them.
But in ZMZ, textual enjoyment, though vital, may not be primary; rather, it is to remain coeval or staying abreast of foreign media flows. Is it because they are volunteer nonprofit groups that they organize their work so efficiently, and professionally?
ZMZ emerged from fan sites beginning in , but they really started proliferating around Between and , there was a drastic shuffling and consolidation of ZMZ in response to the rise of private commercial web-casters. There was a government edict in late banning the circulation of unauthorized links, especially BitTorrents.
ZMZ carry a range of content, organized by language and country of origin English, Chinese, Korea, Japan, Thailand, United States, United Kingdom , genre anime, comedy, sports , subject matter, and stars e. One YYeTs investor was the founder of New Oriental English school, a network of private academies with hundreds of branches across China and over fifteen million fee-paying students. The crossover between language schools and ZMZ funding resonates because English learning is motivational and often used as the default justification for alleged copyright infringement.
How does it work? How are foreign broadcasts intercepted, and translated for Chinese viewers online? The 0-day warez are groups who coordinate to share source code to computer storerooms; they rush to capture software including television, but also music, movies, games, and apps as soon as they are commercially released—and sometimes before. Federal Communications Commission FCC rules on closed captioning for the hearing impaired are shortcuts used by ZMZ, which permit access to accurate subtitling.
Using closed captions, ZMZ make quick translations, re-checking and attaching subtitles to original dialogue. Accurate, free, 0-day viewing of subtitled programs distinguishes ZMZ material from other mainstream sites such as Sohu, Youku, and so forth; these mainstream sites are private web-casters, large, ad-supported, or subscription-based services that offer licensed content only.
ZMZ members have been studied as fans, using consumerist, cultural, and participatory models. With each step celebratory—identity formation—appropriation , the models become more active, with greater agency, control, and empowerment.
In , we embarked on a study of ZMZ teams in China. Finally, we held in-depth interviews with several former and continuing ZMZ members with high levels of responsibility within their teams. We make the claim that ZMZ are part of the media industry, despite their volunteer, informal status. ZMZ seem like a conundrum, as they operate similarly to businesses, providing reliable products valued highly by customers. Yet they are also like clubs, hobbyists, or evangelists.
For commercial media distributors, revenue comes from audiences directly subscription or indirectly through advertising or sponsorship. But ZMZ tend to avoid revenue seeking. They straddle distinctions between formal and informal media enterprise, taking cues from both. The academic literature generally takes ZMZ to be participatory media, intervening in media industry to produce home-made entertainment, tailored to Chinese viewers. This upsets the sender—message—receiver model of communication studies that attracts criticism for consigning viewers to passive recipients.
As they take more active programming roles, ZMZ are seen as implicitly challenging corporate regimes of IT, copyright, and regulation. This is viewed positively, in line with cultural studies norms. Most writers applaud ZMZ indifference to international licensing rules, as well as dodging state regulations that may crack down on unauthorized sharing. We can remove Zimu subtitles from the Zu teams , noting first the linguistic and technical operations of subtitling foreign material.
There is useful literature on translation, subtitling, and dubbing, the rendering of style and meaning across languages. What used to be awkward tasks of recording, timing, translation, and coding, with huge quality drop-offs due to multigeneration copies, have become simpler, more efficient, and more professional. Internet and communication networks aid in the specialization and linearization needed to complete an episode of network television, usually within twenty-four hours of original broadcast.
It is Zu, the people themselves, that most writers privilege in their accounts of Chinese subtitling teams. Donna Chu is articulate and representative in her account of ZMZ communities of practice.
ZMZ activity is avocation, networking, bonding. Unlike the indoctrination of tertiary education, where young students are prepared for a life of paid employment, a community of practice is entirely self-elected, like the work roles of ZMZ members. Enabled and empowered by web technologies, [ZMZ] fansubbing groups have developed into virtual, online communities that are driven not by work or financial reward, but by shared concerns and passions … these groups take on the characteristics of communities of practice, becoming more tightly knit and cohesive.
When I have to leave the group one day, I will miss the friendship we share the most. We are tied by a common interest. We have been through tough times and good times. Our friendship is pure, and is not tainted by any material rewards. In a material world like ours, this is the most precious. I hope the fansubbing group can go on and on. For my part, I will try my best to serve the community. Yet she ignores the legal status of their work, and suspends judgment on violations of intellectual property IP , commercial norms, and encroachment on offline media channels.
Kelly Hu writes of ZMZ as a participatory culture, following a neoliberal work ethic. Their speed, completeness, professionalism, and discipline appear almost identical to corporate lines of production; but their labor is donated, and so is the product, circulated free.
This dual aspect—altruism plus cutthroat efficiency—may be bipolar or phantasmatic , that is, a chimera mimicking capitalist modes and parading great productivity. Neoliberalism bends human will to needs of productivity, efficiency, and competition. Neoliberalism, then, is a form of internalized capitalism, a formation of self that aligns with business-class norms of rational networking. It is, however, a result of embedding instrumental rationality in social institutions and everyday life.
How can a socialist state in control of the market be neoliberal? Neoliberal priorities on competition, discipline, and ruthlessness equip businesses to survive a fierce economic struggle, and entail hostility to organized labor. All these are consistent with Communist Party plans for economic rationalization, consolidation, and foreign direct investment, aims that normally require privatization.
There is considerable literature in English on this subject: These writings are all by cultural anthropologists and ethnographers. There are other views of ZMZ, as an activity that is not so much neo liberation. Her viewpoint is hence more critical, and doubtful. ZMZ continue their work by dodging official channels and commercial media policies, flying under the radar, so to speak. ZMZ are underdetermined because they are productive, but their production is questionable and possibly devious.
As for these, Meng clearly expresses objection to the latter. ZMZ exemplify dichotomies compromised , especially once-stable distinctions between production and consumption. ZMZ activities and output have upset a number of oppositions:. What happens when content circulating via networks circumvents national regulations such as import quotas or censorship? What if media products in their digital format are treated as both commodities and common cultural resources?
What is implied when media consumption involves the creation of new content? The sharing may not undermine value in China, if there is no other way to access it. But is there not something perverse, creatively destructive about this? If Meng takes an economic view, then ZMZ as a creative destruction is valid, as ZMZ unhook the commercial potential in new entertainment commodities.
If the work is given away, then so is the commodity function. And without the commodity, what is left? ZMZ build up audiences via translation, which in turn initiates taste accretion and markets.
In China, audiences are not yet the same as markets, as markets depend on accumulation of willing viewers, who may eventually want to purchase.