Doping in sportIn competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors. The term doping is widely used by organizations that regulate sporting competitions. The use of drugs to enhance performance is considered unethical, and therefore prohibited, by most international sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee. Furthermore, athletes or athletic programs taking explicit measures to evade detection exacerbates the ethical violation with overt deception and cheating. Historically speaking, the origins of doping in sports go anabolic steroids banned all sports to the very creation of sport itself.
Doping in sport - Wikipedia
In competitive sports, doping is the use of banned athletic performance-enhancing drugs by athletic competitors. The term doping is widely used by organizations that regulate sporting competitions. The use of drugs to enhance performance is considered unethical, and therefore prohibited, by most international sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee.
Furthermore, athletes or athletic programs taking explicit measures to evade detection exacerbates the ethical violation with overt deception and cheating. Historically speaking, the origins of doping in sports go back to the very creation of sport itself. From ancient usage of substances in chariot racing to more recent controversies in baseball and cycling , popular views among athletes have varied widely from country to country over the years. The general trend among authorities and sporting organizations over the past several decades has been to strictly regulate the use of drugs in sport.
The reasons for the ban are mainly the health risks of performance-enhancing drugs, the equality of opportunity for athletes, and the exemplary effect of drug-free sport for the public. Anti-doping authorities state that using performance-enhancing drugs goes against the "spirit of sport". The use of drugs in sports goes back centuries, about all the way back to the very invention of the concept of sports.
For instance, Scandinavian mythology says Berserkers could drink a mixture called "butotens", to greatly increase their physical power at the risk of insanity. One theory is that the mixture was prepared from the Amanita muscaria mushroom, though this has been disputed. The German missionary and doctor Albert Schweitzer wrote of Gabon in the early 19th century: The ancient Olympics in Greece have been alleged to have had forms of doping. In ancient Rome , where chariot racing had become a huge part of their culture, athletes drank herbal infusions to strengthen them before chariot races.
The Illustrated London News chided:. The event proved popular, however, with 20, spectators attending each day. The fascination with six-day bicycle races spread across the Atlantic and the same appeal brought in the crowds in America as well.
And the more spectators paid at the gate, the higher the prizes could be and the greater was the incentive of riders to stay awake—or be kept awake—to ride the greatest distance.
Their exhaustion was countered by soigneurs the French word for "carers" , helpers akin to seconds in boxing. Among the treatments they supplied was nitroglycerine , a drug used to stimulate the heart after cardiac attacks and which was credited with improving riders' breathing.
Public reaction turned against such trials, whether individual races or in teams of two. The father of anabolic steroids in the United States was John Ziegler — , a physician for the U. In , on his tour to Vienna with his team for the world championship, Ziegler learned from his Russian colleague that the Soviet weightlifting team's success was due to their use of testosterone as a performance-enhancing drug.
This resulted in the creation of methandrostenolone , which appeared on the market in During the Olympics that year, the Danish cyclist Knud Enemark Jensen collapsed and died while competing in the kilometer mile race. An autopsy later revealed the presence of amphetamines and a drug called nicotinyl tartrate in his system.
The American specialist in doping, Max M. The whole Russian track and field team was banned from the Olympic Games, because the Russian State had sponsored their doping program. Goldman's dilemma, or the Goldman dilemma, is a question that was posed to elite athletes by physician , osteopath and publicist Bob Goldman, asking whether they would take a drug that would guarantee them success in sport, but cause them to die after five years.
In his research, as in previous research by Mirkin, approximately half the athletes responded that they would take the drug,  but modern research by James Connor and co-workers has yielded much lower numbers, with athletes having levels of acceptance of the dilemma that were similar to the general population of Australia.
Over the last 20 years the appearance of steroids in sports has been seen as an epidemic. Research and limited tests have been conducted only to find short-term, reversible effects on athletes that are both physical and mental. These side effects would be alleviated if athletes would be allowed the use of controlled substances under proper medical supervision. These side-effects include Intramuscular abscesses and other microbial bacteria that can cause infections, from counterfeited products the user decides to purchase on the black market, high blood pressure and cholesterol, as well as infertility, and dermatological conditions like severe acne.
Mental effects include increased aggression, depression, and in rare cases suicide has been seen as well. Long-term effects have not been able to be pinpointed just yet due to the recency of testing these substances but would start show up as early steroid users reach the age of 50 and older.
These "de facto experiments investigating the physiology of stress as well as the substances that might alleviate exhaustion" were not unknown outside cycling. He crossed the line behind a fellow American Fred Lorz , who had been transported for 11 miles of the course by his trainer, leading to his disqualification. However, Hicks's trainer Charles Lucas, pulled out a syringe and came to his aid as his runner began to struggle. The use of strychnine, at the time, was thought necessary to survive demanding races, according to sports historians Alain Lunzenfichter  and historian of sports doping, Dr Jean-Pierre de Mondenard, who said:.
Hicks was, in the phrase of the time, "between life and death" but recovered, collected his gold medal a few days later, and lived until Nonetheless, he never again took part in athletics. Stimulants are drugs that usually act on the central nervous system to modulate mental function and behavior, increasing an individual's sense of excitement and decreasing the sensation of fatigue.
In the World Anti-Doping Agency list of prohibited substances, stimulants are the second largest class after the anabolic steroids. Benzedrine is a trade name for amphetamine. The Council of Europe says it first appeared in sport at the Berlin Olympics in Its perceived effects gave it the street name "speed".
The drug was withdrawn but large stocks remained on the black market. Amphetamine was also used legally as an aid to slimming and also as a thymoleptic before being phased out by the appearance of newer agents in the s. Everton , one of the top clubs in the English football league, were champions of the —63 season.
And it was done, according to a national newspaper investigation, with the help of Benzedrine. Word spread after Everton's win that the drug had been involved. The newspaper investigated, cited where the reporter believed it had come from, and quoted the goalkeeper, Albert Dunlop, as saying:. The club agreed that drugs had been used but that they "could not possibly have had any harmful effect. In November , the Italian cyclist Fausto Coppi took "seven packets of amphetamine" to beat the world hour record on the track.
The autopsy showed he had taken amphetamine and another drug, Ronicol , which dilates the blood vessels. The chairman of the Dutch cycling federation, Piet van Dijk, said of Rome that "dope — whole cartloads — [were] used in such royal quantities.
The s British cycling professional Jock Andrews would joke: Currently modafinil is being used throughout the sporting world, with many high-profile cases attracting press coverage as prominent United States athletes have failed tests for this substance. Some athletes who were found to have used modafinil protested as the drug was not on the prohibited list at the time of their offence, however, the World Anti-Doping Agency WADA maintains it is a substance related to those already banned, so the decisions stand.
Modafinil was added to the list of prohibited substances on 3 August , ten days before the start of the Summer Olympics. One approach of athletes to get around regulations on stimulants is to use new designer stimulants, which have not previously been officially prohibited, but have similar chemical structures or biological effects.
Designer stimulants that attracted media attention in included mephendrone, ephendrome, and fluoroamphetamines; which have chemical structures and effects similar to ephedrine and amphetamine.
Anabolic-androgenic steroids AAS were first isolated, identified and synthesized in the s, and are now used therapeutically in medicine to induce bone growth, stimulate appetite , induce male puberty , and treat chronic wasting conditions, such as cancer and AIDS.
Anabolic steroids also increase muscle mass and physical strength, and are therefore used in sports and bodybuilding to enhance strength or physique. Known side effects include harmful changes in cholesterol levels increased Low density lipoprotein and decreased High density lipoprotein , acne , high blood pressure , and liver damage.
Some of these effects can be mitigated by taking supplemental drugs. AAS use in sports began in October when John Ziegler , a doctor who treated American athletes, went to Vienna with the American weightlifting team.
There he met a Russian physician who, over "a few drinks", repeatedly asked "What are you giving your boys? All gained more weight and strength than any training programme would produce but there were side-effects. The results were so impressive that lifters began taking more, and steroids spread to other sports.
Paul Lowe, a former running back with the San Diego Chargers American football team, told a California legislative committee on drug abuse in He [an official] would put them on a little saucer and prescribed them for us to take them and if not he would suggest there might be a fine.
Olympic statistics show the weight of shot putters increased 14 percent between and , whereas steeplechasers weight increased 7. The gold medalist pentathlete Mary Peters said: However, drug testing can be wildly inconsistent and, in some instances, has gone unenforced.
A number of studies measuring anabolic steroid use in high school athletes found that out of all 12th grade students, 6. Of those students who acknowledged doping with anabolic—androgenic steroids, well over half participated in school-sponsored athletics, including football, wrestling, track and field, and baseball.
A second study showed 6. At the collegiate level, surveys show that AAS use among athletes range from 5 percent to 20 percent and continues to rise.
The study found that skin changes were an early marker of steroid use in young athletes, and underscored the important role that dermatologists could play in the early detection and intervention in these athletes. He later admitted to using the steroid as well as Dianabol , testosterone, Furazabol , and human growth hormone amongst other things. Johnson was stripped of his gold medal as well as his world-record performance.
Carl Lewis was then promoted one place to take the Olympic gold title. Lewis had also run under the current world record time and was therefore recognized as the new record holder. Lewis broke his silence on allegations that he was the beneficiary of a drugs cover-up, admitting he had failed tests for banned substances, but claiming he was just one of "hundreds" of American athletes who were allowed to escape bans, concealed by the USOC.
Lewis has now acknowledged that he failed three tests during the US Olympic trials, which under international rules at the time should have prevented him from competing in the Seoul games. I knew this was going on, but there's absolutely nothing you can do as an athlete. You have to believe governing bodies are doing what they are supposed to do.
And it is obvious they did not," said former American sprinter and Olympic champion, Evelyn Ashford. In , one of East Germany's best sprinters, Renate Neufeld , fled to the West with the Bulgarian she later married. A year later she said that she had been told to take drugs supplied by coaches while training to represent East Germany in the Olympic Games. She brought with her to the West grey tablets and green powder she said had been given to her, to members of her club, and to other athletes.
The West German doping analyst Manfred Donike reportedly identified them as anabolic steroids. She said she stayed quiet for a year for the sake of her family. But when her father then lost his job and her sister was expelled from her handball club, she decided to tell her story.
East Germany closed itself to the sporting world in May At the same time, the Kreischa testing laboratory near Dresden passed into government control, which was reputed to make around 12, tests a year on East German athletes but without any being penalised.