Carbohydrate metabolismCarbohydrate metabolism denotes the various anabolic process of converting extra glucose into glycogen is called processes responsible for the formationbreakdownand interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms. Carbohydrates are central to many essential metabolic pathways. Although humans consume a variety of carbohydrates, digestion how to boost low testosterone down complex glycogfn into a few simple monomers for convertkng Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates. The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide components, glucose and galactose.
Carbohydrate metabolism - Wikipedia
Carbohydrate metabolism denotes the various biochemical processes responsible for the formation , breakdown , and interconversion of carbohydrates in living organisms.
Carbohydrates are central to many essential metabolic pathways. Although humans consume a variety of carbohydrates, digestion breaks down complex carbohydrates into a few simple monomers for metabolism: Some simple carbohydrates have their own enzymatic oxidation pathways, as do only a few of the more complex carbohydrates.
The disaccharide lactose, for instance, requires the enzyme lactase to be broken into its monosaccharide components, glucose and galactose. Glycolysis is the process of breaking down a glucose molecule into two pyruvate molecules, while storing energy released during this process as ATP and NADH.
Glycolysis consists of ten steps, split into two phases. Gluconeogenesis is the reverse process of glycolysis. This pathway is regulated by multiple different molecules. Glycogenolysis refers to the breakdown of glycogen. Glucosephosphate can then progress through glycolysis. Glucagon in the liver stimulates glycogenolysis when the blood glucose is lowered, known as hypoglycemia. Glycogenesis refers to the process of synthesizing glycogen.
The pentose phosphate pathway is an alternative method of oxidizing glucose. Fructose must undergo certain extra steps in order to enter the glycolysis pathway.
Lactose, or milk sugar, consists of one molecule of glucose and one molecule of galactose. Many steps of carbohydrate metabolism allow the cells to access energy, and store it more transiently in ATP. Typically, the complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose via aerobic respiration i.
Glucoregulation is the maintenance of steady levels of glucose in the body. Hormones released from the pancreas regulate the overall metabolism of glucose.
The level of circulatory glucose known informally as "blood sugar" is the most important factor determining the amount of glucagon or insulin produced.
The release of glucagon is precipitated by low levels of blood glucose, whereas high levels of blood glucose stimulates cells to produce insulin.
Because the level of circulatory glucose is largely determined by the intake of dietary carbohydrates, diet controls major aspects of metabolism via insulin. Regardless of insulin levels, no glucose is released to the blood from internal glycogen stores from muscle cells.
Carbohydrates are typically stored as long polymers of glucose molecules with glycosidic bonds for structural support e. However, the strong affinity of most carbohydrates for water makes storage of large quantities of carbohydrates inefficient due to the large molecular weight of the solvated water-carbohydrate complex.
In most organisms, excess carbohydrates are regularly catabolised to form acetyl-CoA , which is a feed stock for the fatty acid synthesis pathway; fatty acids , triglycerides , and other lipids are commonly used for long-term energy storage. The hydrophobic character of lipids makes them a much more compact form of energy storage than hydrophilic carbohydrates. However, animals, including humans, lack the necessary enzymatic machinery and so do not synthesize glucose from lipids with a few exceptions, e.
In some animals such as termites  and some microorganisms such as protists and bacteria , cellulose can be disassembled during digestion and absorbed as glucose. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. David Lee , Lehninger principles of biochemistry. Digestion, Absorption and Metabolism.
Gaurth; Gitzelmann, Richard Physiological Effects of Food Carbohydrates. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Biochemistry Free for All. Hyperglycemia Secondary to Nondiabetic Conditions and Therapies.
The Canadian Veterinary Journal. Retrieved 16 May Journal of General Microbiology. Metabolism , catabolism , anabolism. Metabolic pathway Metabolic network Primary nutritional groups. Pentose phosphate pathway Fructolysis Galactolysis.
Photosynthesis Anoxygenic photosynthesis Chemosynthesis Carbon fixation. Fatty acid degradation Beta oxidation Fatty acid synthesis.
Steroid metabolism Sphingolipid metabolism Eicosanoid metabolism Ketosis Reverse cholesterol transport. Amino acid synthesis Urea cycle. Purine metabolism Nucleotide salvage Pyrimidine metabolism.
Metal metabolism Iron metabolism Ethanol metabolism. Cobalamins Vitamin B Glycogen phosphorylase Debranching enzyme Phosphoglucomutase. Phosphorylase kinase Protein phosphatase.
Pyruvate carboxylase Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Glycerol kinase Glycerol dehydrogenase. Hepatic fructokinase Aldolase B Triokinase. Sorbitol dehydrogenase Aldose reductase. Heparan sulfamidase N-acetyltransferase Alpha-N-acetylglucosaminidase Glucuronidase N-acetylglucosaminesulfatase.
Hunter , Hurler Iduronatesulfatase Iduronidase.